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CNC Programming: How CNC Machine Programming Works?

Release time:2023-07-31

CNC' target='_blank'>machining is a conventional manufacturing technique that uses various cutting tools to shape materials. This' target='_blank'>machining operation results in the production of parts with high accuracy and precision. However, to function optimally, this machine requires the right CNC programming.

So, what is CNC programming? Are there different CNC program types? How do you ensure your CNC programming yields successful results? Read on as we provide more in-depth information.

What Is CNC Programming?

Computer numerical control programming, or CNC machine programming, is the process of writing code or a set of instructions that a computer can use to drive CNC tools and machines to create a part or product.

A CNC programmer examines a paper or digital CNC model of a part before entering a series of computer instructions. To create the parts, the CNC programming computer, coupled with sensors and electrical drives, transmits these instructions to an automated machine, such as a mill, router, grinder, or lathe. The machine presses, grinds, or cuts materials into intricate forms and surfaces under the control of the computer.

How Does CNC Programming Work?

Many steps are involved in turning a design into program code for use by the CNC machine. Here is a step-by-step breakdown of how it works.

The programmer accesses the 3D or CAD model of the desired product or part, which is the design for CNC machining.

Conversion of CAD model to CAM using CAM software. The CAM software would create tool paths for the CNC machine. The path created will be according to the features present in the design, such as slots, holes, or surface contours.

After Path generation, the CAM software for CNC also generates the machining code, also known as G-code.

The programmer then feeds this G-code into the CNC machine and presses the cycle start button to commence part production.

Types Of CNC Programming

CNC programming is a general term. There are different types of CNC programming manufacturers use for making parts. They include:

Manual CNC Programming

The most fundamental style of CNC machine programming is the manual method. It entails manually entering commands into an associated control console for the CNC machine. Manual programming is ideal for use when machining simple parts. However, it is important to note that the process can be laborious.

Also, since there are no warnings or notifications for possible errors, this process is often error-prone, resulting in damage to the tool or CNC machine. The high tendency for error makes this programming method less than ideal for machining complex parts.

Conversational Programming

Using a CNC machine with a built-in conversational programming interface is known as conversational programming. Instead of G-code, this interface enables users to enter commands in plain English. To completely define the job, some systems will ask the operator a series of guided questions.

Like manual programming, conversational programming is best used for simple designs. Besides, this CNC programming is simpler and faster than manual CNC programming.

CAM Programming

Computer-aided manufacturing software is one of the most commonly used CNC programming types, especially for prototype CNC machining. This is due to its suitability in creating parts regardless of complexity. Using CAM software for programming offers unmatched speed and accuracy compared to manual CNC programming.

With the CAM software, a programmer can visualize the tool path, thus ensuring they spot potential challenges during machining. Besides, CAM software offers programmers more flexibility, as transferring code from one machine to another is possible without rewriting the entire program.

List Of The Most Important CNC Codes

Although collectively called G-code, there are several codes used in CNC programming. These codes, denoted by alphabets, tell the machining cutting or drilling tool where and how to shape the workpiece. So asides from G-code and M-code, here is a list of the other important CNC programming language codes.

programming language

T-codes: The T code specifies the tool ideal for machining a particular feature on a workpiece. In other words, it is used for tool identification.

S-codes: These S-codes or speed codes indicate the desired tool spindle speeds throughout the machining operation.

N-codes: Lines or blocks of machine code with an N-code are identifiable. The CNC programmer can better arrange and understand the manually produced CNC code with the aid of the line labels. Most of the time, CAM-generated code does not need line numbers.

M-codes: Also known as miscellaneous codes, they control the CNC machine’s non-geometric actions. For example, M-codes control the spindle and coolant.

G-codes: Also known as geometry codes, instructs the machine how to move, when, where to move from, and where to stop moving.

F-codes: These are codes for feed rates. They stand for the various cutting rates that the tool must move at.

D-codes: These codes describe the tool offset of a CNC machine, which can be the measurement of how far a tool protrudes from the tool holder or the distance between the tool’s center line and cutting edge.

How To Create CNC Coding?

You need to be familiar with the fundamentals of CNC machining, CAD/CAM software, and the G-code machine command language before you can create CNC code. Also, it is also crucial to understand CAM software, how it functions, and what the programmer is expected to do. Here are the simple steps of how to program.

1. Generate and Export 3D Model

To begin the coding process, it is important first to export the 3D CAD model into CAM software. However, some CAD systems feature CAM software, which allows this step to be omitted.

cnc programming for milling

2. Create the Path for Tools

Translate the CAD models into tool paths manually, which works best for straightforward pieces, or use the CAM software to automatically build the tool paths. The desired part features and the available tooling must be taken into account when choosing a tool.

3. Confirm Tool Paths

It is necessary to confirm the right tool path. This helps prevent machines from crashing into fixtures or workpieces. It is possible to complete this stage manually, automatically (by simulating the tool paths in the CAM software), or with external tool path confirmation software.

4. Download the Code to CNC Machine

The final step in creating a CNC code is inputting it into the CNC machine. Code transfer could occur through flash drives and other portable storage devices or direct download into the machine over a local network.

Best CNC Programming Software For Beginners

Choosing the best CNC coding tool for a task depends on its use. Simpler software exposes the user to the most crucial variables, but advanced software provides a wide range of options and analysis that helps optimize the machining process.

software for cnc

Some of the top CNC programming software programs for beginners currently on the market include:

Solidworks ®: This software is a CAD/CAM hybrid with many powerful features. However, its CAM is an add-on module and is often pocket-unfriendly.

Meshcam: This is one of the best CNC programming software for beginners due to its simplicity. Meshcam also has high-speed programming for simple parts.

Fusion 360 ®: Like the Solidworks software, Fusion is also a hybrid of CAD/CAM. This software is feature-packed. It has a free and paid version, ideal for beginners and expert CNC programmers. It also features a g-code editor for editing codes written on other software.

Vectric: Specifically for CNC engraving and routing applications, Vectric offers an outstanding range of software packages, including VCarve, Cut2D, and Aspire. Although a tad complex, this software lets programmers generate, manage and create precise toolpaths that drive the CNC machine efficiently.

Mastercam: Mastercam has some CAD functionality while being CAM software. Its CAM package is powerful and easy to use. It is a popular choice for programmers as it has been in the market for over 30 years.

Industries Applications For CNC Programming

CNC programming has been used across a diverse range of industries. It also facilitates manufacturing a wide variety of products, including creating prototypes and parts.

Health Care

Hospitals can employ CNC programming to generate artificial anatomical parts, including joint replacements, cranial implants, and dental restorations. Medical devices are crucial to people’s lives and health, thus manufacturers can use CNC programming to test and produce advanced medical device components.

Consumer Electronics

The field of consumer electronics uses CNC machining and its programming for optimal prototyping and production of laptops, smartphones, and other electronics. The precision machining derived from CNC makes it ideal for making detailed parts such as circuit boards on a large scale.

Aerospace and Aircraft

The aerospace industry is one of the major beneficiaries of CNC programming, as it facilitates the production of many parts and products. For instance, propellers, wings, frames, landing gear components, and engines are all products of CNC programming.

CNC programming helps players in the CNC machining industry make high-quality parts with high precision, like helicopter rotor blades. These machines can also be used to create spacecraft like satellites and rockets.


Parts for automobile engines, such as cylinder heads, crankshafts, camshafts, valves, brackets, and pulleys, are made by CNC programmers in the automotive manufacturing sector.

Besides, they can run CNC machines to produce parts for fluid systems, suspensions, and the inside and exterior of cars. They can control the CNC machines to produce components for street automobiles, race cars, or other modes of transportation like buses and trains.

Tips For A Successful CNC Machine Programming

Knowing the right CNC machine programming is the first step in manufacturing products that meet industry standards. It is also one way to reduce the incidence of errors and tool damage. Here are some tips for successful CNC machine programming.

cnc programming for turning

Be Grounded in the Basics

Before undertaking a project, it is best to ensure you have mastered the basics of machine programming. When using conservational and manual programming, it is need to double-check calculations to ensure the right machine specs are used. Keep in mind that the precision of the machine is dependent on the accuracy of the underlying math.

Customize Feed Rates

Operators should spend much time fine-tuning a program in any volume CNC project to ensure it functions properly, effectively, and consistently. Once this is done and the application is locked, operators can “set it and forget it.” However, the manufacturing process can be optimized by tailoring specific elements of CNC machine code.

Take Compensation Types into Consideration

Simply tolerating and accounting for unforeseen deviations is compensation. The most typical forms of compensation should be understood by operators so that they can plan accordingly.

The CNC machine’s automatic pre-setter tools can be used to program compensations or accept manual input. The several types of machining compensation include offsets for fixtures, tool wear, cutter radius compensation, and tool length compensation.

Make Programs Simple

The majority of CNC machining applications use G-codes as a standard. However, programming each operation individually can be time-consuming. Operators can significantly reduce the programming time for machining processes by using canned cycles.

How To Find The Right CNC Programming Type For Your Needs?

Finding the right CNC programming type for your needs is one great step to achieving great success when CNC machining. Below are factors to consider when choosing a programming type.


Your budget is the first point of call when finding the right CNC programming type for your needs. If you are on a tight budget, it is best to go for programming types like manual and conversational, as they do not require any major investment.

Skill Level

Manual and conversational programming requires a great amount of operator skill to guarantee success. If you are a certified operator, these processes might be ideal for your needs. However, if you do not have the necessary skill set, it is best to go for CAM programming.

Level of Precision

The level of precision you need is another factor to consider when finding a CNC programming type for your needs. If high precision is a priority, then CAM programming is ideal, as it is automated, with fewer chances of error, than manual and conversational programming.

Get CNC Programming And Machining Services From Wayken

At Vowin, we understand the challenges that come with manufacturing and the importance of reliable CNC services. Our team of skilled engineers, technologists, and designers are committed to delivering top-rouch CNC programs that bring your design to life.

With our expertise and advanced technology, we can alleviate your manufacturing burden and ensure high-quality results. Contact us today and trust us for all your CNC needs.



What does a CNC programmer do?

The task of writing CNC programs falls to the CNC programmer. The CNC programmer has two options for creating the CNC code: manually writing it or using CNC programming software. Asides from writing codes, the programmer also runs the machine.

How hard is it to program CNC?

The difficulty in programming CNC depends on the program, its goal, and the machine. For instance, 3D printing is easier, while programming a mill to cut through metal is difficult.

Which language is commonly used for CNC programming?

G-codes are often used in CNC programming. It is the language the CNC machines understand. It is important to note that there are smaller codes according to functions.

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